Old Asia Photography

Japanese Numbers List

​Souvenir Albums - Numbers List and Attribution Issues​

​Throughout the whole of the Meiji period and beyond, many studios in Japan issued souvenir albums of photographs. Unfortunately, many of these albums did not indicate the studio's name. Therefore, it was challenging to attribute the images' authorship to a particular studio or photographer. However, the vast majority of the photographs displayed descriptive captions and numbers on the face of the prints. A small percentage of the albums did indicate the studio with a title page or the name and address wet-stamped onto the back of the front cover. Starting in the early 1980s, I began to record the captions and numbers of those photographs contained in albums whose studios were identified. I also started to document those albums which needed to be identified. In those days, Japanese souvenir albums were relatively common. Within a few years, I could list photographs appearing in several hundreds of albums. Number patterns quickly emerged, and I identified an increasing number of studios. I published the results in my 1996 book Early Japanese Images where some 1,200 photographs were matched with their studios. In 2006 I published an expanded list of 4,000 in Old Japanese Photographs: Collectors' Data Guide. These have been further supplemented below to around 5,000. However, many gaps remain, and a few studios are yet to be identified.

Some years ago, Takahashi Shinichi discovered an album by Kanamaru Matashiro in the Yokohama Archives of History. It has proved to be a veritable 'Rosetta Stone' in that many previously unidentified photographs can now be matched with this studio. The studio was prolific. Over recent weeks and months, I have been reviewing and correcting numerous attributions. It's taken some 40 years, but the picture is much clearer. I encourage anyone with numbers that do not appear (or perhaps you have some corrections to suggest) to send in the details so they may be added. Contributing in this way would help collectors, researchers and photo historians.

A word of warning. Just because a photograph is listed below and attributed to a particular studio does not always mean that the studio in question created the image. Over the years, I have realised that the vast majority of studios had little hesitation in including the works of other studios in their portfolios. This practice might have been a simple case of geographical gap-filling if customer demand could not be satisfied with a studio's existing holdings. After all, it would have been a time-consuming and expensive process for a studio to travel the whole country photographing all of the scenes a customer might want to see included in an album. And as studio owners retired or died, their businesses might have been continued by family members, or their stock and negatives might have been sold privately or auctioned off. 

Consider just a few examples demonstrating the movement of negatives from studio to studio. One of the first studios to open in the early 1860s was one belonging to Felice Beato. He included the work of Charles Parker and a few images taken by the amateur Frederick Sutton. Most of Beato's negatives were sold to Stillfried & Andersen in 1877, who subsequently sold their stock to Adolfo Farsari in 1885. When Farsari left Japan in 1890, his studio continued under different names. But many of his negatives likely found their way to other studios when he left Japan.


In compiling the lists below, I have been helped by many generous contributors. These include: Tom Baker-Stimson, Greg Barattini, Emma Bennett, Torin Boyd, Tom Burnett, Jim Clinefelter, Agata  Czapkowska, Joseph Dubois, Elmer Funkhauser, Arlene Hall, Naomi Izakura, Nayla Maaruf, Rob Oeschle, Bonnie Olson, Adrien Saks, Christoph Scharzenbach, Fred Sharf, Pierre Spake, and Shinichi Takahashi. (Please let me know if I need to include any names.)

Terry Bennett

January 2023

Studio Number Description Comments
ENAMI T. (Studio) 700 [Geisha arranging flowers]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 716 [2 women with umbrella, one smoking]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 735 [wrestlers]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 752 Salted Fish Shop
ENAMI T. (Studio) 753 Toy Shop
ENAMI T. (Studio) 760 [Firemen exhibition]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 764 Garden Tokio
ENAMI T. (Studio) 767 [Geisha in a Garden]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 769 [8 Geisha Relaxing]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 770 Tea House at Tokio
ENAMI T. (Studio) 782 The Wistaria
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1012 Sumida River Tokio
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1013 Asakusa Temple
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1019 Intrance of Asakusa Park (Tokio)
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1020 Entance Uyeno Park Tokio
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1021 [Two Sleeping Girls]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1024 Uyeno Park Tokio
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1027 [Shinto Priest]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1031 Gate of Asakusa Temple Tokio
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1035 Inside Asakusa Temple Tokio
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1042 Iris Garden Tokio
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1043 Iris Garden Tokio
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1050 Iris Garden
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1054 Daibutsu-Kamakura
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1058 4 Girls Taking Tea and Soba
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1304 Kioto also in Kusakabe list
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1500 [ploughing a rice field]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1501 [Group of Children]
ENAMI T. (Studio) 1503 Japanese Junk [has appeared as O 61]
ENAMI T. (Studio) A 8 Nunobiki Waterfalls At Kobe
ENAMI T. (Studio) A 261 Temple at Kamakura
ENAMI T. (Studio) C 59 Crucifixion & Gokumon
ENAMI T. (Studio) C 94 The Weaver
ENAMI T. (Studio) C 99 Fencing
ENAMI T. (Studio) E 4 Miogi
ENAMI T. (Studio) H 27 Bakan Harbour
ENAMI T. (Studio) H 56 Tomo of Bingo
ENAMI T. (Studio) H 57 Tomo of Bingo
ENAMI T. (Studio) H 58 Island or Sensui-Jima at Tomo, Bingo
ENAMI T. (Studio) H 59 Island or Sensui-Jima at Tomo, Bingo
ENAMI T. (Studio) I. 3 Japanese Pines (Of Nikko)
ENAMI T. (Studio) I. 4 Jinkyo
ESAKI Reiji (Studio) 1 Yokohama Harbor
ESAKI Reiji (Studio) 2 Grand Hotel Yokohama
ESAKI Reiji (Studio) 3 Benten Dori at Yokohama
ESAKI Reiji (Studio) 5 Grand Hotel Yokohama
ESAKI Reiji (Studio) 6 Mississipi Bay Yokohama
ESAKI Reiji (Studio) 7 Main Street Yokohama
ESAKI Reiji (Studio) 8 Hon Mura-Dori, Yokohama
ESAKI Reiji (Studio) 10 101 Steps, Yokohama
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